Insomnia: Causes, Treatment, and Symptoms

Learn about the causes and types of insomnia, common symptoms, and treatment options for this sleeping disorder.

By Alesandra Woolley

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in which an individual fails to fall and stay asleep. It’s estimated that one in three people suffer from a mild form of insomnia, and nearly every person will experience some form of insomnia at some point in their lives.

Symptoms of Insomnia

For being so common, insomnia can be difficult to diagnose. However, experiencing one or more of the following symptoms is a good indication you suffer from insomnia:

  • Difficulty falling asleep on a consistent basis
  • Frequently waking up and failing to fall back asleep
  • Excessive tiredness throughout the day
  • Growing concern or frustration about sleep

Types of Insomnia

There are two main categories of insomnia: primary and secondary.

Primary insomnia is when you experience difficulty sleeping for no apparent reason, such as another health condition or life circumstance.

Secondary insomnia occurs when you experience sleep problems as a direct result of something else. For example, depression, menopause, medication, or pain.

Insomnia also varies in severity. In some cases, insomnia is experienced only for a short amount of time, from one night to a couple of weeks. This is called acute insomnia. In other cases, insomnia is experienced for long periods of time. This is called chronic insomnia and is diagnosed when an individual experiences insomnia at least three times a week for longer than three months.

Causes of Insomnia

Insomnia can be caused by a variety of things. Acute insomnia and chronic insomnia have very different causes.

Causes of Acute Insomnia

You might experience acute insomnia if:

  • You are under a significant amount of stress from work, after the death of a loved one, divorce, or some other life circumstance.
  • You are sick or recovering from an injury that causes physical discomfort.
  • Your environment is not conducive for sleep (i.e. it’s noisy, too bright, or too hot).

Acute insomnia is experienced temporarily but can develop into chronic insomnia.

Causes of Chronic Insomnia

The causes of chronic insomnia are more difficult to identify and vary from person to person. It’s possible for chronic insomnia to develop as a result of short-term insomnia that goes untreated, but it’s more likely that a combination of factors is contributing to the problem.

The Spielman Model of Chronic Insomnia (aka the 3 P’s)

The Spielman Model of chronic insomnia identifies three components that contribute to chronic insomnia:

  • Predisposing factors
  • Precipitating factors
  • Perpetuating factors
Predisposing factors

Some individuals are more prone to developing insomnia than others. While some people have a low predisposition to insomnia and can drink caffeine, experience chronic pain or undergo stress without missing a lick of sleep, others have a high predisposition to insomnia and may develop insomnia with nearly any physical, emotional, or cognitive arousal.

For example, genetics is a predisposing factor to insomnia that may make an individual more prone to developing this type of sleep disorder. It’s believed that light sleepers, or those who are aroused more easily while sleeping, have a greater tendency to develop insomnia. When untreated, predisposing factors can become perpetuating factors.

Precipitating factors

Precipitate means to cause. Unlike predisposing factors that are inherited, precipitating factors of insomnia are catalyzed by an event that causes stress or an existing medical condition that leads to insomnia.

Examples of medical conditions that contribute to insomnia include:

  • Another sleep disorder like sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome
  • Chronic pain
  • Cancer
  • Depression or anxiety
  • Arthritis
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Asthma
  • GERD

Other common precipitating factors of insomnia are often caused by stressful events related to relationships and careers. For example, divorce, the death of a loved one, a big move, or a job transition.

Perpetuating factors

Finally, perpetuating factors are those that don’t go away. They are a result of a change in behavior or cognition. For example, even if the original cause of insomnia is resolved, insomnia continues (or perpetuates) because the individual’s mindset or lifestyle has been altered to accommodate the initial battle with insomnia. Perpetuating factors, like a sedentary lifestyle or poor sleep hygiene, last indefinitely and prevent an individual from re-establishing proper sleep.

Health Risks if Insomnia Goes Untreated

There a number of health risks associated with chronic insomnia that goes untreated. Chronic sleep deprivation puts your mental, physical, and emotional well-being in jeopardy.

A decline in Physical Health

Sleep is the glue that holds us together. It is the body’s time to rest and regenerate cellular tissue. Without it, every system in the body is affected. Below are a number of physical consequences associated with long-term sleep deprivation:

  • Immunodeficiency
  • Weight gain
  • Increased risk of diabetes
  • Increased risk of heart disease
  • Increased risk of stroke
  • Sensitivity to pain

Increased Risk of Mental Illness

Sleep and mental health are very closely related. In many ways, sleep is the fuel our brains need to operate at full capacity. Without proper sleep, we cannot properly process new information, memories, or emotions. Not to mention, our brains regulate and produce hormones during sleep. Therefore, when we don’t sleep hormone levels are disrupted, leading to a whole slew of mental and emotional consequences. Chronic insomnia can result in the following mental health consequences:

  • Increased risk of depression and anxiety
  • Hormonal Imbalances
  • Increased risk of hallucinations
  • Memory impairment

But don’t be fooled. Even if you experience acute insomnia, you are at risk for short-term effects of sleep deprivation that include:

  • Irritability
  • Lack of concentration
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Increased appetite (especially craving for carbs)
  • Delayed memory retrieval
  • Slower reaction times
  • Daytime sleepiness
  • Increased risk for accidents

Treatment for Insomnia

So what can one do? First and foremost, consult a physician regarding your sleep disorder. They can help craft the most effective treatment plan for you. But depending on the type and cause of insomnia, your sleep disorder can be treated via therapy, medication, or simple lifestyle changes.


If you regularly suffer from insomnia, your best bet is to see a sleep therapist. There are a number of therapies used to treat insomnia, but two of the most popular and effective are Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Stimulus Control, also known as sleep restriction.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia consists of seeing a sleep specialist to help cure you of insomnia. The primary objective of CBT-I is to change behavior in such a way that you are able to train yourself to fall and stay asleep. CBT is achieved by devising a custom plan that reveals the root of the problem (what is keeping you up at night) and implements strategies that improve your sleep behavior. The ultimate goal of CBT is to challenge unhealthy beliefs about sleep and replace these fears with positive thinking backed by healthy sleep hygiene.

Stimulus Control

The purpose of stimulus control is to help an individual associate their bedroom with nothing but sleep. This is achieved by restricting certain activities, like watching TV or working, in the bedroom. One important aspect of stimulus control is retiring to bed only when you are sleepy and leaving the room if you have lain awake for 20 minutes or more. This helps eliminate the association between your bedroom and wakefulness.


Depending on your lifestyle and/or personal preferences, you may opt for a medication to help aid in sleep. Sleep aids can be purchased over-the-counter or prescribed by a physician. Some people may prefer taking an all-natural supplement to assuage your insomnia.

Over-The-Counter (OTC) Sleeping Pills

OTC sleeping medications may be a good option for those who are experiencing a small bout of short-term insomnia. They are not intended for regular use. Nonprescription sleeping pills contain antihistamines that make you drowsy. Be aware that they can cause side effects such as daytime sleepiness, dizziness, confusion, cognitive decline and difficulty urinating, which may be worse in older adults. Some examples include:

  • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Aleve PM, others)
  • Doxylamine succinate (Unisom SleepTabs)

Prescription Medication

Prescription medications should never be a long-term solution for insomnia (although some prescription medications have been approved for long-term use). However, they may be prescribed when you first see a doctor about your insomnia. Examples of prescription medications for sleep include:

  • Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
  • Ramelteon (Rozerem)
  • Zaleplon (Sonata)
  • Zolpidem (Ambien, Edluar, Intermezzo, Zolpimist)

Natural Sleeping Aids

If you prefer not to taking medication, there are a plethora of natural remedies to sleep. See our in-depth guide to the best all-natural sleeping aids here. Other natural sleeping aids include:

Lifestyle Changes

In conjunction with therapy and sleeping aids, making a few simple changes to your lifestyle can help combat insomnia. The following tips can also help prevent the onset of insomnia or keep it from worsening:

  • Change your diet (here’s why)
  • Create and bedtime and stick to it
  • Craft a wind-down routine that includes a warm bath or meditation to help prepare your mind and body for sleep
  • Keep your bedroom cool
  • Stick to calming hues in your bedroom
  • Make sure your room is as dark as possible (invest in blackout curtains if it receives a lot of natural light)

Want to learn more about the different types of insomnia and how to manage it? See our related articles on insomnia below.

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